14:39 

тут я пытаюсь написать курсовую работу

Йоож
я хочу быть самой красивой в мире бабочкой
Как и в прошлом году курс по методике преподавания, помимо устного и письменного экзаменов, требует письменной курсовой работы. Казалось бы, в чем проблема, всего пять страниц. Но мы работы пишем очень редко, так что последнюю работу я писала год назад; а самое страшное - это свободная работа на свободную тему (прошедшую через одобрение профессора), материал для которой надо тоже накопать свободно, то есть бросили тебя в море и выплывай себе. Я утонула в артикуляции Моцарта и решила писать на тему стратегии практических занятий. Вроде как это более удачная тема, раз я продвинулась до стадии записывания идей (прочитав две диссертации целиком, просмотрев штук двадцать статей разнообразного качества и пролистав три библиотечных книжки, из которых только одна пока что была полезна). Писать я буду по английски, тут в комменты буду сваливать все, что может оказаться полезным. Закрывать не буду. Сдать надо через пять дней, работу никто при этом не отменял, а еще 30-ого вечером я праздную день рождения с семьей.
Удачи мне. В прошлом году я за работу получила очень низкую оценку, надеюсь, тут мне больше повезет. В любом случае тема полезная, я собираюсь все прочитанное широко применять на практике, сдать бы только да профессора не разочаровать, я хочу к нему попроситься через год на вторую степень.

@темы: черновики, музыка

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2018-08-25 в 15:07 

Йоож
я хочу быть самой красивой в мире бабочкой
Overall structure:
Warm-up - outside of the piano gymnastics, technical exercises - from Hanon to Cortot, scales, arpeggios, etudes - from Czerny to Chopin and Liszt. Slow or fast? Learning, automatizing, maintaining. Exercise derived from the repertoire. Transposition.
Learning new material: only score\experimenting with the interpretation. Musical concept\physically difficult units. Difficulties: physical (speed, span, stamina, leaps, coordination); mental (memorizing, conceptualizing, reading, styling, nerves control); musical - both mental and physical - volume control, pedaling, voicing, emotional stamina, shadings, touches - musical decision and its physical representation. Pre-hearing: auditory imagination. Active listening, critical listening. Problem solving - creativity in finding the solution. Fingering. Dividing between hands, Rearrangement.
Maintaining - slow practicing, working in the details, repetition, accuracy, security. Automatic. Process of transferring the conscious to the subconscious. Awareness on different things, focus. Getting used to the music (listening) and to the positions (physicality, relaxation, economy in movement, exaggeration of the right movement until its clear). Working strategies to secure physically challenging units (accents, hands separate, hands together with different dynamics, different touches, grouping). Ultimately every technical problem requires it's own specific solution, it's own technique which needs to be first found, then learned, then repeated until it's automatic. Sections grow bigger, time spent on a piece grow shorter. Reserve margin - practice faster and louder\softer then the actual performance. Be careful to have goal for the strategy, avoid mindless repetition and useless techniques.
Performing - run-through. First small section, then the whole piece slow, then the whole piece a-tempo, then change conditions (experiment - open the grand, change piano, dress up, etc). Then invite a friend. Then make a small concert where you don't play full-out. Then play full-out on a small concert. Record and listen. Put the piece aside when seems ready and return after a while. Experiment with mood and tempi and phrasing and touch and dynamic etc

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2018-08-25 в 15:12 

Йоож
я хочу быть самой красивой в мире бабочкой
Goal setting: long term (years) - long term (one year) - program-defined - short term (semester, month, week) - per day - per practice session. Ideal: two or three practice sessions a day, learn something in the morning and review it at night. Practice regiment and the ratio of it's parts changes according to how close you are to a performance. You learn a) what you want to learn - i.e. whatever you set as your goal; b) whatever you repeat - i.e. mistakes and mechanical, dry, un-focused playing. Don't practice things you cannot use in performance.

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2018-08-25 в 15:13 

Йоож
я хочу быть самой красивой в мире бабочкой
Practice day prior and on the day of the performance. Diet, mindset.

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2018-08-25 в 15:17 

Йоож
я хочу быть самой красивой в мире бабочкой
Mental practice and memorization (build in into the practice session). Practice outside the piano; immersion - life as constant process of practicing (movements, body conscious, awareness, remembering the music, inspiration, reading and researching, familiarization with other music of the same composer and overall style, solving interpretation problems by constant searching for answer, physical body\finger exercises away from the piano, theory learning)

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2018-08-25 в 15:27 

Йоож
я хочу быть самой красивой в мире бабочкой
Questions: pure technique\pure mental. Danger in the repetition (may lead to injury), danger in fast warm up (may lead to injury). Sight reading (faster sight reading equals faster learning of new material) - where to put it and how much time to give in in daily\weekly practice. Improvisation (the ability to improvise might save in the occasion of a sudden memory slip or wrong note blunder) - how to learn, when and how much time to give it in the practice regime. Glen Gould quote (very little practice). Richter example\Liszt example (former 10-12 hours of practice, latter up to six hours of pure physical practice)

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2018-08-25 в 15:34 

Йоож
я хочу быть самой красивой в мире бабочкой
Literature review: Ruth Slenczynska, Music At Your Fingertips - a lot of accounts of great master's advice: Rachmaninoff, Cortot, Schnabel. Very unorganized book, but short and nicely written. Some helpful advise, some not ("you will experience pain which will make you better in the long run" - really?..), throughout the whole book. Feux Follets story - determination and creativity. Virtuoso. Detailed explanation on how to work with metronome.
Music at your fingertips - metronome practice (concepts..)
Physical problem-solving (more about..); accent practice
Transposition practice
Slow and full weight practice
Practice the eyes in the leaps
Concept of learning and re-learning
On the lid practice
Teaching patterns to your muscles
Soft pedal practice to develop sensitivity to nuanced dynamic
Memorizing as part of the learning. Memorize and review. Mental practice with the score
Singing practice (ear training): the important melody, the other voice, the instrumental cue in the concerto
Feux Follets story - creativity and determination
‘Absorption’ - process of learning a new piece. Artificial accents don’t work for polyphonic music
Daily run through
Experiment with performing: put down the music stand and open the piano to change the conditions. Change the height
Odd time (not previously scheduled), spontaneous run-through
Critical listening
Different place
Taking few days breaks when feeling discouraged: attention to the emotional state
Consult the score
Not use the same devise for different composition
‘Preparing a program’
Set a deadline
Work schedule - four hours divided into two sessions minimum
Warm up slowly
Rotate according to a day and nature of the problem
Choose the most difficult and start at it. Review it later
Phase one: initial learning - concentrating on the works one by one
Phase two: maintenance and deepening - rotating works
Exaggerate
Overlearn - margin of reserve
Schnabel had a detailed master plan for everything. Several plans for various conditions
‘From my teaching..’ ways to practice basic technique
Sight reading?
Silent practice - Rubinstein’s quote
Recording slow session and playing them for memorizing
‘From studio’
‘Perform’ all the time once the composition is memorized - few times in a row. Then find a listener. Aim - flexible performance. Experiment with different pianos. Inner voices. Emergency stations (for slips). Practice musical detail. Project. Subconscious: speak to a friend while you’re playing.
Use timer. Vary the strategies
More beneficial to work a little everyday then a lot one day
Make a habit to play the opening every time. Practice on the hall piano day before and day of the concert
What to do in the morning of the concert

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2018-08-25 в 16:59 

Йоож
я хочу быть самой красивой в мире бабочкой
Conclusion:
Practice is a balanced process. It must be viewed not only as a daily routine but also as a weekly and preferably also monthly, yearly and multi-yearly project. Each of the different points of view should have it's own goal, whilst all of the goals are coordinated together in order to achieve a most efficient way to produce a good performance and ultimately overall improvement. It should be structured enough to ensure transfer from conscious to subconscious and flexible enough to include possibility of adaptation to various arising needs, such as increase of performance time closer to the date of the performance or the maintaining time when the focus shifts to mastering a fairly new physical ability etc. The weekly goal setting will allow the student to create a rotation of his pieces where each piece could get the necessary time for physical and musical work at the instrument and time for work away from the instrument. The monthly goal setting could allow the student to include performance activities during the early stages, and maybe allow him to schedule lengthy sight reading sessions as well as give him the possibility to reflect on his advancement in the more complex matters, try new practice strategies and reflect on their usefulness for him, monitor his improvement and give it a more concrete direction.
Music-making is both mental and physical activity, so should be practice. Part of the practice process is magnifying and exaggerating, while working closely on a detail that is small comparing to the whole piece or the whole program and as a part of the process purely mental or purely physical aspects might and sometimes should be isolated and perfected.
However it is important to remember that that musical experience is essentially a process of listening and emotional response. Therefore, one should be guided by two questions: "What do I want my audience to hear?" and "How do I want my audience to feel?". Subsequently, while practicing one should be able to decide on the desired sound, listen to the sound produced and change it accordingly; knowing that both the musical conception of the piece and the ability to reproduce it might change through time and knowledge gained and because of the conditions of the piano and the hall, one should be open minded and part of the practice should be devoted to the experimenting. The emotional response is even more difficult to create and control, and great virtuosos have polar approaches to it [quotes]. Without getting into too many details I would say that emotion is often openly declared as part of the composer's musical intent and stated in the tempo and dynamic markings and so must be interpreted and observed. The question of whether a luck of emotion in the pianist would result in the luck of an emotional response in the audience still does not have a unequivocal answer, however it is known that too much of uncontrolled emotion from the pianist could resolve in a disastrous performance for he would lose the ability to listen to himself while he plays and so wouldn't control the somewhat more trivial auditory part of the performance. On the other hand, pianist enjoys the music same way any other person does, meaning, through listening and emotionally responding. A pianist also adds to that the physical pleasure of playing, but still denying the emotional part he would lose at least a third of his own enjoyment of the music. Undoubtedly, a sad prospect.
Hence, the vast majority of practice should involve active mental work, alert and critical listening and constant physical awareness. Even the the processes that are automatic, such as for example fine movements of the fingers and wrists when playing scale passages at full speed, must be at some point brought to conscious and examined. The pianist must be able to consciously and purposefully use every one of the subconscious processes; more importantly, he must be able to switch the subconscious back to conscious while preparing and adjusting and then back to subconscious while working on a broader concept or performing.
In the process of preparing a new piece one learns and then maintains and finally performs exactly the things that were part of said process, good and bad. If one wants the performance to be good, he needs the preparation to involve all the aspects of it. The clearer the goal, the easier it is to achieve, so it's important to detail the process as much as possible to ensure that all the ingredients of a piece have gone through the quality control. It is, however, not enough, as besides the dissection and perfecting of all the details there is the assimilation and working on the general concept, a more complete impression of a piece of music (and, in the end, of the program as a whole). And finally, there is work on conquering the nerves and projecting to the audience which is ultimately possible only by going through few actual performances and reflecting on them. This is why practice must always have not just a goal but a few different ones, that must be in turn revised and altered according to the level of preparation on the piece. For each goal one should have a strategy, and better so a few, how to act in order to achieve it. The progress should be monitored (better with the help of a teacher) so the effectiveness of the strategy could be checked.
There are natural limitations, but some pianist are known to achieve incredible things as artist despite all odds, and in the end of the day the most powerful limitation is luck of will power and desire to learn and to grow.

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2018-08-25 в 17:04 

Йоож
я хочу быть самой красивой в мире бабочкой
Balanced process = involves mental and physical activity. While learning patterns, more physical (repetition while transferring the movement from conscious to subconscious); later, more and more mental. Only possible if creating a shortcut: naming the pattern, the element, thus enabling its recognition later on when encountering it in the repertoire. Body awareness and remembering the physical feeling of the pattern and then being able to imagine it, mentally reproduce it.

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2018-08-25 в 18:25 

Йоож
я хочу быть самой красивой в мире бабочкой
Nazarov

Attention: an act of maintaining the focus on something for a considerable amount of time. An attention heightens the intensity of the work of the mind. Nazarov divides the attention to two kinds: concentrated, with a minimal scope (Uhtomsky - dominanta, when one process is strong and all the others are slower then normal), and divided, which focuses on one point but is aware of a much broader scope and is able to switch the focus from one point to another with losing the broad picture.
Nazarov describes the work with these different forms of attention, that looks the same (repetition) but is different because the goal is different, and therefore the mindset is different. Concentration vs synthesized, generalization. He calls the concentrated mindset also "analytical attention". He also divides the second form of attention to two: first is focused on the musical idea and the generalization of all the individual elements of a piece and the second on the emotional state of the student, the second being the performance mode. If you stop while you are in the second1 or second2 mode, your mind will switch into the first, narrowly analytical mode, and you loose the broad scope.
Example of a wrongly timed use of different mindsets - synthesized while preparing, no focus on detail, and analytical while performing, no broad scope. Wrong conclusion: mind activity could temper the performance.
Ultimate goal: creation of complex psycho-physical dominants and their coordination. Process: analytical awareness of all the movements and their conscious synthesis.
Movement of the professional: conscious movement that has gone to become automatic. Strategy: slow (controlled, analytical) - fast (automatic, synthesized) - slow again. Nazarov states that the last part (going back to slow) is crucial. Important: slow practice doesn't work if your mind is not in the attentive analytical mode!
Lots of importance given to the emotional part of the musical performance technique. Emotional state should be coordinated with the listening and physically playing the notes, so it would be possible to use it consciously for an emotional performance. According to Nazarov, the emotion plays the leading role ub performing a piece. Examples of associating emotions to dynamics: pp - intimately, secretly, tenderly. Mf - clearly, calmly. F - excitedly, strongly, angrily etc
Four components: motor skills, musical hearing, emotion and musical thinking (knowledge and intuition that's based on it). Training the intuition through improvising in various forms and styles. The chain: musical thinking - emotion - musical hearing (inner and outer) - movement. There is a need to develop each of the four components and their coordination.
Sensorimotor skills: according to Nazarov, physical representation of technique includes both the physical movement and the sense of ease and correctness of the movement. To develop correct and reliable technique the pianist should concentrate on the sense of the movement rather then on the mechanics of it. Strategy: a whole body gymnastics designed to learn to immediately relax all the muscle or specific muscles ("quick rest technique"); phase 1 - learn be consciously aware of the sense of correctness of the movement; phase two - learn to give a movement a deliberate shape based on the following principal: the faster the movement the smaller the amplitude and the force applied. Besides training the body and the mind (different mindsets for different speeds of movements, controlled transition between the mindsets) the goal of the gymnastics is to replace or shorten the warm-up. Phase 3 - exercises at the instrument, coordinating the movement and the hearing, focusing on the sound and connecting the sense of the physical execution with the quality of sound. Phase 4 - learning or re-learning rudimentary elements of technique according to the previous phases. Phase 5 - etudes; coordination of all elements, un-focused (broad) mindset. Phase 6 - meaning and emotion; actual music pieces. Sense of correctness of movement stays even through the final phase.
Mental practice! First sensorimotor skill, then it's mental practicing. Need for visual impulse as well (imagination\score). Need for physical practice. When apply: to maintain; to develop a skill that doesn't improve anymore with physical exercises; nuanced movement in difficult passage; new movement (trasferred knowledge). Mental practice is useful also for inner ear, emotion etc.
Training inner sense of rhythm: creating rhythm rather then receiving it. Sense of rhythm affects sense of form. Rhythm - bar (!!!) - form.
Exercise in movement: forming or repetition with the goal of improving the movement. Concentrated attention. Etudes: use of the automatic movement, no concentration on the specific movement but coordination of the elements. Work: playing through slowly, with broad mindset, cultivating the awareness of the sense of correct movement. Once it's learned slowly, speed up and slow down without stopping (part of the etude). Afterwards play up to tempo.
Four stages of learning a piece:
1. playing through (possible to play section) with no attention to tempo, main goal is quality of sound.
2. playing slowly but accurately, including rhythm and style, special attention to quality of sound.
3. a tempo, no emotional part, focus on movement and style
4. artistic mindset - focus through the emotional mindset on musical intent
Some parts that are difficult require an exercise treatment.

Exercises for ear training:
- focus on one sound
- focus on the memory of melodic interval in that order: octave, 5, 4, M3, m3, M6, m6, M2, m2, M7, m7, trtione
- focus on harmonic interval (as one sound)
- focus on the impression of two intervals played in a succession (first same two, then combinations)
- focus on a chord (triad and inversions in a natural order, V7 and inversions, diminished chord and augmented triad)
- focus on impression of succession of chords (table with order)
- focus on impression of modulation
- focus on impression of a part of a piece (eight bars, focus on the sound and not on the emotion)
- focus on impression of a piece

Inner ear: imagination of a sound (same order but including melodic chords before harmonic chords).

Strategy: play and focus on something unrelated (for automatic movement). Play and shift the focus from unrelated to music and back (for training control of the shift between conscious and automatic movement). Play and focus on the interpretation (style, intellectual). Play through emotion. Play and shift focus between emotion and intellect. Goal: connect and coordinate between all of the crucial parts of performance.

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2018-08-25 в 19:05 

Йоож
я хочу быть самой красивой в мире бабочкой
Note: in a set of new pieces not all pieces will require equal effort. Part of them can be pushed into maintaining and conscious repetition stage of improvement rather quickly, whilst others might require 90% pf pure mental work of getting oneself familiar with the music but close to none physical problem-solving.

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2018-08-26 в 21:02 

Йоож
я хочу быть самой красивой в мире бабочкой
Newman
Technical drills are good for warm-ups. Czerny is good for Czerny, Hanon is useless, but some things do make sense: trills (hs and ht, also double), three finger combinations, scales, arpeggios and double notes, because the standard repertoire is based on them. Still fairly useless for modern music. Strategies: weekly rotation of scales and arpeggios to save on time, doing major and minor of the same tonic (i.e. parallel, not relative). Playing in clusters. Different groupings: fives, sixes (two triplets), sevens (in a scale it's an accent on every tonic) and eights (two fours). Extreme speeds.
In general, he advocates for creating exercises out of the repertoire. "Factor of interest is vital to learning" - in general, student might play a piece he is really exited about better then the one he is more prepared for but is not interested in to the same degree. Effectiveness of modeling. "Careful, intelligent practice in the music itself can produce technical achievements far in advance of the performance of routine drills". Specified problem solving, a) nature of the passage b) nature of the hand (execution). Strategy: shifting accents if some notes are too soft or short in a passage. "...how a student should practice. He must expect to lead himself with the teacher guidance" - pretty vague. But then: he should practice exactly and only what he wants to play, therefore should know what it is. So: figure out "the goal and the obstacles that keep him from it", and work on that. Afterwards, the goal is formulated as "playing the piano" which is immediately reduced to "learning a new piece".
Stages (he says 9 but it doesn't happen): fingering (technical efficiency and consistency). Hands separate and experimenting with different options. Working back from the end of the passage. If there are few options, make a choice and stick with it. Test it in the final tempo and dynamic. Wright the fingerings in (using pencil), only in the places there is doubt. (*Trick: in waltz accompaniment play the base note with the fifth finger and the chord with the fingering that would be appropriate if the chord was played simultaneously with the base. When approaching the base consider it as if it was an octave and while aiming eye the note that would have been played with a thumb.) Caution against fingerings written-in by the editor (might have different hand size or different understanding of basic fingerings for trills and such, might be just bad). Ignore the "no thumb on black key" as useless. Three rules: simple, stronger gingers for stronger accents, consistent. Attention to hand position (how many notes can be covered).
Rhythm . Count out loud, very clearly and precisly, subdivide only the beats where complex subdivision occurs. Tempo - strategies to find a proper one.
Interpretation Structure analysis, harmony, themes etc. Concept of a whole, as early as possible. Phrasing by finding a climax (look for something unusual; when there is none, look for the last strong beat before the final note). Styling - ornaments (on the beat\before, upper\lower\principal note), dynamic (more reserved for Haydn, more wild for Brahms).
Strategy for mistakes: don't make them! Option: make it intentionally a few times.
Learn everything as a whole, otherwise you need to re-learn something (for example, dynamic). Learn by playing trough, paying attention to everything. Small sections - troublesome units work for final polishing. Maintaining: slow concentrated practice. Newman calls it "renewing individual reflexes" that in turn form a "larger chain reflex". Balanced by fast practice. Imagination that limits speed: strategy - metronome or listening to a performance. Later: practice more the problematic spots.
Drills should be distributed throughout the practice time, "where they will apply to specific pieces"."..to budget not only his daily time but also his weeks and month". Strategy: specific goals, assignments and practice logs in writing. Practice when you are active.
Memorizing as a way to ensure that every detail was at least seen. Also, technical necessity at some passages. Needed for artistic expression. Memorizing should start as soon as everything is primarily figured out. Strategy: place the music on top on the piano, so you have to stand up to consult the score.
In a sitting one should learn as much "as his mind can encompass". Begin each day with a new section first, then go back to maintaining.
Landmarks for memory lapses.
Mental reviewing.

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2018-08-27 в 21:00 

Йоож
я хочу быть самой красивой в мире бабочкой
Newman:
Nine steps' three phases of learning a new piece:
Phase one: Groundwork
1. Choosing the piece - long term goals: what is the desired progress, new styles and techniques that need to be learned
2. Understanding - rough conceptualizing. Read-through, analysis, tempo, style.
3. Planning - fingerings, articulation and dynamics (further style question), techniques involved (elements and their physical execution), first idea for the necessary exercises. Ornamentation and metrically free passages. Cadenzas.

Phase two: Learning the notes
4. Fixing the habits and coordinations. Slow practice. Newman advocates for slow play-throughs that include everything (dynamics, articulations etc) except the pedal
5. Counting with metronome at a slow tempo. Seems to be similar to the previous but is a bit more advanced, the purpose is to form a more steady connection between the notes and find the musical relation between them in a fixed structure of a meter. Note: some sections are easier to be played a tempo, but still needed to be practiced slowly, maintaining the same way of execution that fits the desired faster tempo.
6. Memorizing. Comes before the piece is brought to a tempo and all the technical issues are solved and mastered. Calls for further exploring of the logical connections in the music, sequences, harmonic patterns and so on. The process seems to go slower here but will go much faster once the piece is memorized.

Phase three: playing the music
7. Counting with the metronome up to tempo. Strategies: clusters, higher then necessary speeds, continuation of slow practice.
8. Polishing in small-section practice. Strategies: exercises based on the reportoire, double notes. clusters, change of fingerings and redistribution between the hands, different articulation, different way of physical execution (more wrist bounce, rotation, finger action etc). Rubato or general broadening of the tempo for a climax point to cover the fault of technique (sic!). Simplifying the passage and thinning out the texture. Pedalingg is worked out and everything is re-examined to see whether it is done as well as possible and serves the musical idea.
9. Interpreting the piece as a whole. Rechecking everything again, especially the phrasing to fit the big structure of a piece

Next - performance
Run-through to a friend
Playing with eyes closed
Concsious memorizing (not automatic)
Warm up before
Concentration and rest spots

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2018-08-28 в 12:34 

Йоож
я хочу быть самой красивой в мире бабочкой
S. Williams

Prerequisit for practice: goal + intention to improve
Process: exploration, observation, trial, reflection, adjustment
Improvement over session vs lasting improvement
Approach to music as a language: inner ear, singing, pattern recognition, music literacy, meaning and expression
Approach to aquiring fine motor skills as largely unconscious process. Cocnclusion: mind needs to focus on musical intention and emotional meaning. Note: states that motor skills are best learned implicitly and conscious attention towards them as well as formulating rules verbally disturbs the learning process.
Concept of formal practice: goal setting and planning before (choosing strategies); focused attention, self control and awareness during practice; refluction and evaluation after playing\after practice session.
Atittude, self preparation, exercise (preparation of the body), intrinsic motivation and sense of control. Enjoy the work and notice your achievements. (Lots of positive thinking). Assess personal energy level and ajust accordingly (fall back onto a routine on low energy days and explore and change on high energy).
SMART goals: specific (detailed), meaningful (relevant and important), acievable (based on previous achievements), realistic (adjusted to given time and resources), time based (approximatly). Long, medium and short term goals. Specific goals allow the student to be direct in the approach and able to evaluate the effectiveness of practice.
Control your practice: practice log.
Plan in breaks, stay flexible and plan both physical and mental part.
Strategy: practice a phrase (segment) with various musical intentions, moods and styles (dance like, march like, sad, lively etc). [Goal - explore, look for a touch and interpretation, have a few approaches, control more, practice getting the intention through and playing in an emotional mindset]
Strategy: play segments in random order and not one after another. Play right the first time without repetion (cause: brain adapts to repetion, therefore it will be less alert the first time you play a segment and will be focused more with each repetition). [Variation on strategy: practice perfect beginnings of each piece of the program (including the right emotional state). - mine] [Goal - security of performance and memory, practicing fast anticipation, staying alert and focused, precision of execution. ]
Blocked (repetetive) practice vs random practice. Both useful in different stages of learning.
Improvisation and flow. State of flow = optimal performance. Practice strategies for state of flow: awareness without jugment (an act with no improvement planned). Tactile experience: contours, texture, temperature. [stage - warmp up to relaxe and prepare the playing apparatus; warm up before performance; technical difficulties practicing to notice unexplored causes for problem, also to ensure maximum contact with the instrument and focus in the fingertips; memorization to test and ensure security]. Awareness of overtones and acustics (forces more active listening).
Williams suggests to avoid using the analytical mind alltogether when playing as it tempers with fine motor skills and instead focus on the emotional or musical intention. Use for analysis and comparisons is at the planning and assesing moments of practicing.
Observational practice (practicing with another person).
Mental training - aural imagery; muscular imaginary (imagine the movement, mentally performing). Goals: development of the inner ear, clearer sound ideas and musical concepts, prevention of overuse injuries, control and memorization training, concentration.
External focus: focusing on the sound and the idea rather then the execution (correlates with the mindset of Nazarov). Strategy: metaphors, narrative (correlates with masterplan by Schnabel); 'explaining something to a child' (correlates with Cortot's "convince me").
Audiation - strategy: imagine, sing and conduct (move, doesn't need to be precise, needs to be free), play, repeat. [Strategy: imagine that you are singing, humming the melody but the sound doesn't come from the mouth but from the fingertips - mine]
Strategy for pushing (margin of reserve): faster, twice through, exaggerated dynamic. Transposition (as a mean to what?)
Practical task needs to be just the right amount of difficulty (i.e. be achievable while pushing the student forward).
Many short sessions are better then one or two long ones. (Ruth - two long ones are ideal).
As for the implicit learning: it does appear that analogy learning does have to its benefit the supported by research idea that skills acquired that way are not suffering in their execution under stress. The less the student knows consciously about a fine motor skill the less he will be tempted to try to consciously control it during performance and so the more success he will have in its execution. (Same thing that Nazarov says about analyzing during performance).

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2018-08-28 в 14:53 

Йоож
я хочу быть самой красивой в мире бабочкой
Breithaupt - "He who never errs can never play correctly". Newman - "Hesitate but do not play a wrong note".
Reread Breithaupt! Eye grasp (sight reading as a base for learning a piece), analysis before playing; playing when practicing evenly and uninterruptedly until the end. Practice specific exercises every day for about an hour and a half, but do not practice more then 3-4 hours total. Learn, sing, analyse etc. Decide on a manner of attack (physical execution) when you learn the piece (mental work). Train the inner ear and the connection between the eye and the hand.
A lot on nerves as reason for tension and calmness as requirement for practice and play.
Conscious study and concentrated attention with freshness in mind and body. Patience and pleasure.
But also: watch the posture and a whole chapter on breathing. Deep, slow, even breathing.
No finger drills, stretching drills, scales or arpeggios. No repeating same figure over and over. No repeating same exercise in the same manner day by day. No dumb pianos. Agility of movement is the agility of brain.
Studies are polyphonic pieces (Bach, Handel). Maybe ask Eitan if he has the volume I?

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2018-08-29 в 11:58 

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я хочу быть самой красивой в мире бабочкой
Pianists at play:
Rubinstein - exercises out of the rep; when the rep is easy, exercises out of the difficult rep
Gieseking - concentration (the idea that you shouldn't wait to practice to play better. "Concentrate right now so you can play the way that you want"). Eveness of scales. Strategy: first firm touch, full weight - then pianssimo and fast small motions. Exercise weaker gingers (4-5) on etudes (specifically Clementi first 2). Play with your ear. Five finger exercises in transposition evenly. Practicing musically ("every nuance must be produced by a technical means").
Iturbi - technical exercises ("training of muscles"), solfeggio and theory study, analysis paired with musical intuition (must be both). Building up stamina (endurance). No invention - discovery. Be prepared (study theory and technique) and then don't analyze to much when studying a new piece.

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2018-08-29 в 12:00 

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я хочу быть самой красивой в мире бабочкой
It is a little bit sad to realize that virtually all of them were child prodigies, so what works for them doesn't work for the less gifted or fortunate student. But it does make sense to see what we strive for in our work, to make greatness a bit more specific.

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2018-08-29 в 12:43 

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я хочу быть самой красивой в мире бабочкой
Mental practice is “the cognitive rehearsal of a skill that takes
place within the individual in the absence of any gross muscular movements” (Ross,
1985, p. 221). - very narrow definition
Freymuth (1994) defined mental practice as “a process of creating an
accurate mental image of a physical action, with the intention of affecting one’s physical
performance of the task in question” (p. 18). - and again
Strategy: learn a new piece by analyzing, practicing at the piano, practicing
mentally until the selection is memorized and mental performance can be done smoothly,
and practicing physically until performance at the keyboard can be accomplished
smoothly
Coffman (1990) studied the effects of different types of practice on
piano performance accuracy among undergraduate and graduate music education and
music therapy majors who had completed at least two semesters of piano study. He found
that mental practice was better than no practice; physical practice, used alone or
alternately with mental practice, achieved better results than mental practice; and, in
support of Ross (1985), that alternating physical and mental practice was as effective as
physical practice alone.

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2018-08-29 в 16:38 

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я хочу быть самой красивой в мире бабочкой
Roger Chaffin (two articles)
“SEEING THE BIG PICTURE”:PIANO PRACTICE AS EXPERT PROBLEM SOLVING (2003)
"On the one hand, decisions about technique cannot be ignored; fingerings must be selected and solutions for technical problems must be found just to play the notes. At the same time, the best solutions to many problems of technique depend on interpretive decisions. So unless the musician begins with a clear idea of the “big picture,” or overall musical shape of the piece, fingerings and other basic motor skills are likely to need relearning once the interpretive decisions have been made".
The idea that part of the process is deliberate and part is automatic and intuitive. The more experience you have, the more decisions you make automaticaly [hence the stories about perfect prima vista - use of previously accumulated knowledge] and the more you can rely on the intuition to appear correct at further reflection (less need for reworking things).
"The present report focuses on the first period which consisted of 12 sessions totaling nearly 12 hours over 5 weeks (see Chaffin & Imreh; 2002 and Chaffin et al., 2002 for the later periods). Session 1 began with a slow sight-reading of the entire the concerto before the pianist started working systematically through the Presto a few sections at a time, deciding fingerings and establishing motor memory. This stage was completed by session 6 and, after a three-day break, the new goal in session 7 was to play fluently through the whole piece. This was first achieved at the end of session 8 with five fluent performances, one “mostly from memory”. Sessions 9 and 10 were devoted to developing interpretation, sessions 11 and 12 to “just running through … and fix[ing] whatever goes wrong.” At the end of session 12 the pianist played through the piece twice from memory before setting the Presto aside for three months."
Initial sight reading - many hesitations but without compleat stop or repeating. "...goal was not fluent performance but to locate the main themes and look for ways to make each return of a theme distinctive, identify problem spots for performance, and evaluate fingerings."
Sessions 1-6: problem solving with some general artistic intent. Deliberate focus on physical mastery with gradual maturity of musical and emotional concept. Sessions 7-12: nuanced interpretation and performance. Deliberate focus on interpretation and emotion, practicing the performance. Pointed physical problem solving that is not mentioned as part of the session's goals.

Practicing perfection: How concert soloists prepare for performance (2008)
"Performers have a mental map of the piece in mind as they perform that tells them where they are and what comes next — a series of landmarks, hierarchically organized by the sections and subsections of the music. The musician attends to these performance cues in order to ensure that the performance unfolds as planned. Performance cues are established by thinking about a particular feature of the music during practice so that it later comes to mind automatically. Performance cues help the soloist consciously monitor and control the rapid, automatic actions of playing, while adjusting to the needs of the moment."
"Thinking about highly practiced motor skills is a sure way to disrupt them. In athletics, this is called “choking” (Beilock & Carr, 2001). To think about a complex skill without choking takes practice." [so, we conclude that it is possible. Back to square one!]
"My fingers were playing the notes just fine. The practice I needed was in my head. I had to learn to keep track of where I was. It was a matter of learning exactly what I needed to be thinking of as I played, and at exactly what point so that as I approached a switching point I would automatically think about where I was, and which way the switch would go" (Gabriela Imreh)
The idea is: choose a place, name it, repeat to establish a link between a name and a movement, practice thinking about it at the right moment until it's automatic.
"There are different types of performance cues. Structural [cognitive, analytical and intellectual] cues are critical places in the formal structure of the music, such as section boundaries, where musical material changes, and switches where the same theme or pattern repeats at different points in the piece and might be confused. Expressive [emotional] cues represent musical feelings to be conveyed to the audience, e.g., surprise or excitement. Interpretive [sound focused] cues are places where some aspect of interpretation requires attention, e.g., a change of tempo or dynamics. Basic [motoric focused] cues represent the critical details of technique that must be executed exactly for the performance to unfold as intended, e.g., the use of a particular fingering in order to set the hand up for what follows."
5 stages of learning (for cellist): explore, smooth out, listen, re-work technique, and prepare performance. These stages correspond fairly well with those identified by Wicinski (1950, reported in Miklaszewski, 1989) except that Wicinski’s last two stages were repeated. The
correspondence is as follows (with Wicinski’s stages in italics): explore (initial
ideas
), smooth out (work on technical difficulties), listen (trial rehearsals), re-work technique (work on technical difficulties), prepare performance (trial rehearsals).
Sight read compleatly and then work section by section. After finishing all the sections, next session ended with playing from memory with the score opened. Next three sessions - re-evaluating and working on technical difficulties. Next - interpretation (phrasing). Then put aside and after two month break practice in a proper hall. Break again while listening to recordings [modeling practice], then reworking. Section by section and integrative practice. [Basic (motoric) cues needed when passages are similar but differ in some small thing and thus confusing and require special attention during performance.]
Expressive cues - emotion - more reliable then structural - intellect, their memory lasts longer. Basic (motoric) cues are not accessible by cognitive memory but by muscle memory. Name is short and mostly metaphorical.
"The skilled performer achieves flexibility by integrating automatic motor sequences with cognitive control through extended practice of performance cues."

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2018-08-29 в 16:45 

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Mishra, 2011 - on memorization efficiency
CONCLUSION
The results of this experimental study confirm the results of an earlier observational study (Mishra, 2002). Memorization efficiency was affected by the strategy employed. Practising a piece from beginning to end (Holistic strategy) allowed musicians to memorize a short, technically simple piece of music faster than segmenting it. The important element of Holistic practice is playing until the end of the piece even if memory or technique is disrupted temporarily. The Serial strategy involves returning to the beginning when an error or
memory slip interferes with practice, rather than pushing through to the end. This is the least efficient strategy and questions remain as to the stability of the memory obtained through this approach. Most musicians reported using an Additive strategy and while this strategy was more efficient than either the Segmented or Serial strategy, it was less efficient than the Holistic strategy. (c)

If it's easy, best strategy is to play it through until it's memorized. Of course, what's easy for me is not always easy for you and vice versa.

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2018-08-29 в 17:05 

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Teaching Practice Strategies in the Music Studio: A Survey of Applied Music Teachers. 1994
Introduction provides a valuable collection of already research-supported hypothesis about efficient practice, such as: it's necessity for motor skill acquisition and performance improvement; efficiancy of logical and sequential organization; positive use of mental practice; positive use of analyzing the score and especially it's aid in memorization; effectiveness of distributed practice and short sessions; effectiveness of goal oriented practice with direct practical goals; use of idealised model performance (including student's own recording) to promote improvement. Structured practice.
Strategy: marking the music (to support memorization, establish cues).
Nothing more! pretty useless :\

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2018-08-29 в 18:00 

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я хочу быть самой красивой в мире бабочкой
Berr, Transormational Practice Techniques
How come that the best way to learn a passage is not to just learn a passage? Catalogization of exesting practice strategies as transformational practice techniques by three categories: additive, substituting and reductive. Additive - to add on difficulty. Strategy: play passage with octaves\with one finger. Goal: secure memorization, feeling the intervals and changes of direction. Widen leaps. Exaggerated motion in his opinion is a form of this technique.
Substituting: for example, to change staccato to legato to improve on volume control and accuracy, also to practice the big muscle motion (direction). Strategy: mistake practice - conscious practice of a learned error, immediately followed by practicing the correct versions proves to lead to an effective un-learning, provided it's done carefully, in a small portion and with high concentration. Strategy: silently prepare the position before playing, espicially useful in chords, for security of correct physical execution.
Reductive: making the complex problem easier by omitting parts of it. Interesting note: extensive hands-separate practice doesm't solve hands-together coordination problems. Strategy: blocking, playing notes together rather in block (cluster). Also helps with establishing musical relations. Vertical blocking vs horizontal blocking (positoins), can be practiced with original fingering to reinforce muscle memory or not. Strategy: diagonals - notes that should sound immediately one after the other, while the keys are struck with two hands in turn - practiced as verticals.
"Recognizing a problem, diagnozing the cause" (c), determing a strategy, mastering the strategy, placing the unit back into context
Cause: accompaniment figure based on broken chord. Strategy: blocking. Note: will not help with the motion and the legato, only fingering and harmonic comprehension. Helpful, but wouldn't completely solve the problem.
Slow practice: good for accuracy, confidence, clear sensations, conscious playing, concentration, training of steady pulse (if there are problems with rushing), attention to details both mechanical and musical, rhythmical precision of complex subdivision and careful development of singing tone. Dangers: losing the music itself, heavy tone, stodgy rhythm, reluctance to play faster. Also, some movements cannot be experienced in slow motion and has to be executed fast in practice as well in order to be felt. Only partial solution. Note: slow practice doesn't necessarily means that the fingers will be slow. (Strategy: fast attack, slow preparation). Relationship between slow and fast practice is not one of evolution (slowly gaining the speed) but rather one of alteration between the two.
Repetition: ♦ Repetition should be conscious and purposeful, reflecting focused mental activity , not merely mechanical reflex.
"There must be a sufficient pause between repetitions for the mind to re-arm and concentrate again on the task at hand. During this pause the practicer assesses the previous playing, and then prepares for the next; much mental activity is required in a relatively short time. In effect, each repetition should feel pristine, as if the passage were being played for the first time. Hetty Bolton said it best. "Surround every action with a circle of non-hurry" " (c) [That works for analytical focused attention that might temper with the physical execution due to slowing the motor function unless the focus is external. It might be more useful to repeat the passage without stopping, focusing on the sense of ease and the sound result, thus allowing the motion to become automatic. The pause effectively eliminates the repetition and it's desired effect. However, that strategy would be useful while learning (figuring out the correct approach by testing, reflecting and adjustment) or while practicing the performance, even in shorter section (and then aiming for a perfect execution each time, achieved by immediate and precise succession of purposeful movements directed by the act of [musical] will and cued with an emotional state)]
Berr says that no more then five successful repetitions are needed, and that much more might be harmful physically or mentally (causing boredom and sense of exhaustion). He does, however, say that students should build up to longer sessions.
Promotes focus, creativity, independent problem solving.

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2018-08-30 в 00:07 

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я хочу быть самой красивой в мире бабочкой
Kochevitsky (1967)
Spiral of approach to piano playing: music first in the baroque era, technique first up to technique for its own sake, technique without sound (dumb pianos and exercising without an instrument), music first and highly developed motor skills in service to the musical intention in the modern era.
Practicing inner ear, singing tone. Clear mind in practice, no killing the intellect. Chopin - singing tone. Liszt - grasping the spirit of the composition; the body will find the necessary movements for realizing the musical idea - technique not only in service of the artistic goal but is generated by a tonal image. Not the exercise but the technique of exercising. Expansion of the repertoire called for new motor skills and whole body involvement. Deppe: beauty of tone, development of tone hand in hand with technique training. Playing apparatus from shoulder to fingertips, free fall (controlled free fall), wrist supple and flexible, fingertips active and sensitive. Attentive listening to the tone produced and aural imagination of the next one as a means of achieving legato. Practice is a mental vigor and progress ensured by marrying conception with the execution and active musical intention rather then by amount of hours put in. It was somewhat ruined by his followers that again focused on the movement and not on the purpose of it. Breithaupt and the danger of looseness; conclusion: full relaxation is a preparatory stage, while each tone require some degree of muscle tension. Anatomic-physiological school (conclusion: specific knowledge in details is not actually helpful) and encouragement of logical problem-solving and a sensible application of a whatever approach to a technical difficulty rather then blind following of a teacher's instruction. New school: conscious training of the correct movement would eliminate the need to prolonged practicing. To solve a problem one needs only to understand what muscles to use and how. The downfall of that approach is the inability to calculate while playing. Eliminating of finger action led to loss of precision. Again, ignoring the musical intention and focusing on the work of the muscles (without really understanding it). But, it helped to get rid of harmful ideas of the old only-finger approach.
End of the ninetieth century theory of exercises: involves the whole nervous system, includes visual, tactile and kinesthetic senses, controlled by brain and repetition brings the whole process from the conscious to the subconscious while refining it. Mind can increase its own elasticity and versatility. To perform complicated movements one needs a sense of purpose and expediency. Refinement is both gaining speed of the necessary motion and getting rid of the unnecessary motion. Virtuosity: fast and fine perception of auditory and muscle sensations, rapid transmissions of the commands from brain to muscles and fine gradations in strength and timings of motor impulses. The roots of talent are in the brain, not in the hands.
Speed = succession of motions and grouping of motions into one. Mind dexterity and coordination between fingers, ears and eyes.
Approach: no focus on individual muscle work. Focus on elimination the unnecessary movements and the purpose - the sound. Steinhausen: the body left to itself will find the right and sure way. Problem: again forcing one ideal idea of a movement. In reality as there are many different musical ideals we need many different ways of movement. James Ching and the idea of training eyes. form ("look") and the sensations of the movement ("feel") together, establishing connection between them without any tone perception and artistic ideas.
Psyco-technical school: training from the "inside" and not from the "outside". Moscheles said that the mind should practice more than the fingers. Nikolai Rubinstein said that pianist would achieve technique not by amount of time but by quality of this labor, by the strength of will and attention directing the mind on musical problems. Hugo Riemann said that velocity is the speed of telegraphing from brain to muscles. leschetizky recommended correcting mistakes mentally before playing the passage again.
How to organize the process of practicing. Names: Busoni, Schnabel, Godovsky, Giesinkng.
So: Consciousness plays a great role in the preparatory period, but not in the fine motor skill acquisition. Although Koshevitsky states that "the interference of consciousness in some of those processes [the movements] is possible and sometimes desirable in the preparatory period, in performance this interfernce would be detrimental to motor activity". (p 16)
"Virtuosity is achieved..thanks to the practiced ability to anticipate the movement suitable to each given cause and convenient for each individual" (p 16)
Strategy: listening to other pianists at play.
Finally: artist-teacher is good for a genius, very physically gifted or already prepared students. Everyday teachers know that musically gifted students encounter physical problems that are needed to be solved 'through understanding and conscious working out of those motor elements which are open to our understanding'. Components: appearance of movement (form, look), position and interrelation of the parts of the playing apparatus, inner muscular sensations and tonal result of movement. Why force a student to discover what has been discovered before? (p18)
Strategy: slow playing and exaggeration of movement for the conscious perception of the proprioceptive (self perceiving in space) sensation. Statement: finger technique takes more time and attention to develop than movements of the upper parts of the arm. Raising the fingers yes or no - as much as needed to raise the awareness of their movement. Strong and active finger work. Strategy: slight pressure into the key after it's full depression to heighten the tactile sensation. Staccato practicing for finger sensation (finger staccato and piano). Strategy: slow and pianissimo, legato, prepare position, attention on the fingertips, synchronize the depression of new key with the lightning the weight of the preceding finger on the key until the key rises. If tired, stop. Strengthening of the nerve command rather then the muscle.
Problem: rushing. Strategy: stop before the climax point, before the strong beat, on any given point in the passage and shifting the points in order to escape creating a pattern. Case: trills; strategy: practicing trill backwards, starting with the ending pattern.
Statement: mental practicing and silent memorization (away from the piano) is possible only when the pianist has as a response to the visual and inner auditory stimuli the anticipation of a corresponding motor activity (p28)
Statement: unconscious repetitions might obliterate the positive result
The necessary number of repetitions and the period of practicing depends on:
1) the complexity of given motor gorm
2) the type of nervous system [let's call it some sort of physical predisposition, or a gift]
3) the concentration of his attention
4) the previously established connections [hello, practice habits of great pianists]

Strategy: overlapping legato to form a chain of movement, where the next starts before the first is finished thus creating a line.
Strategy: legato with hand and wrist unmoved to promote finger activity
Strategy: energetic (but economic) movements in slow practice to promote velocity. Look for strong finger grasp with a flexible wrist.
Strategy: grouping in tempo with stops between groups. Development of fast thinking. Linking the groups gradually together.
Strategy: grouping finger movements in one wrist movement. Grouping wrist movements in arm movement. The faster you want to play the more movements of the smaller muscles you need to group together in one movement of a bigger one.
Strategy: in a passage that includes lateral shifts work out the bigger lateral movements according to the direction of the line separately from the finger work
It is important that the unit that the student is working on ends on a logical point, preferably on a strong beat.
The agility of our motor apparatus depends on our ability for fast musical thinking.
Mental dexterity - making sense of music for faster reading. Grouping notes into logically connected units.
Strategy: unite scale passages into 7 notes unitis and use octave orientation.
Important to anticipate and prepare (p 45)
Think fast: not formulated thoughts. Same as with speech.
Strategy: regrouping for easier execution (p47) Technical phrasing vs musical phrasing (Busoni). Guidelines: 1) notes move in one direction 2) repetition of similar movement (pattern) 3) hand position 4) last note of the group comes on an accent
It should be a rule that everything has to be played without mistakes from the very beginning to save time and energy. So: analyze and prepare, play slowly, play only a section that can be comprehended by you
Strategy: tapping rhythm. Each hand separately while the other is tapping the beat, then both simultaneously
Strategy: separate voices in polyphonic music, combine in all of the possible combinations by two's and three's and so on
Strategy: read the score mentally from time to time to remind oneself the music in its ideal perception
"Real creation does not lie in the realm of reason. [..] ..performance.. is achieved.. by inspiration" (p51)
Self-oblivion [in performance] is possible only when the motor activity is perfectly automatic. Ideal state of mind is inspiration with constant self control (p53)
Strategy: start to perform inwardly before playing. Note: negative instructions don't work
No practicing on the day of the performance, only warming up! To avoid fatigue. In general no practicing until tired. Be wary of great pianist's advice on practice

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2018-08-30 в 10:08 

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Tradition and Craft in Piano Playing (Fleischmann, 1952)

"A considerable proportion of Fleischmann’s treatise is devoted to describing Stavenhagen’s suggestions on how best to approach the study of new works and assimilate their expressive content. Needless to say, Stavenhagen and Kellermann expected that their students would attempt to become rounded musicians, with a thorough knowledge of harmony, counterpoint and form, as well as being well-versed in music history. Stavenhagen advocated a preliminary study of the work during which the student would analyse the piece carefully, determining its overall structure as well as examining local details of harmony and phrase structure to assist in formulating an interpretation. The best methods of fingering complex passages would also be worked out at this stage. Only when these tasks were completed would physical practise commence. Stavenhagen advocated practising extremely slowly at first, at a tempo in which one could proceed fluently and confidently from note to note and chord to chord without the slightest hesitation. The student was to listen with minute attention to the quality of tone produced, ensuring absolute evenness and control of line and voice-leading. Stavenhagen held that this form of disciplined practice was the surest way of learning a work thoroughly and accurately, believing it also to assist the student in memorisation. As the student became more familiar with the music, the speed of execution could be gradually quickened until the desired tempo was attained, but never until the technicalchallenges had been thoroughly mastered at the previous slower tempi." (p 23)
"Touch is ultimately dictated by the personality and character of the player, and more important than all the mechanical aspects of touch dealt with above is the player’s predominant disposition, whether robust and vigorous, coarse and insensitive, gentle and persuasive, or timid and irresolute. This is where character-training becomes part of the curriculum and where the teacher with personality can exert a wholesome influence in moulding the student’s disposition, if his particular type of touch indicates traits requiring either to be strengthened or subdued. When the student has matured, one of the indispensable assets he must possess is that singing cantabile tone which is the life and soul of piano-playing. Coupled with the art of producing a rich resonant tone must be the ability to devote one’s whole conscious being to the simple and
sincere utterance of the music one is engaged in playing. One must listen to and feel every note. This absorption will then be reflected in one’s bearing." (p 46)

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2018-08-31 в 21:31 

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G. Sandor
The interpretation and technique are indivisible (ptrface xi)
Conscious practicing reduces necessary time and the anount of repetition. Understanding of the musical text ensure faster learning and memorization. Advice against rhythmic variant practice (p184)
Uneven practicing for continuous control: some motions require more time to be correctly and controllably executed with awareness (186) Practice in short sessions to achieve maximum concentration in each take. Motions travel between conscious to subconscious automatically and back at will (187) Creativity is not conscious and intellectual but intuitive. After the learning is done and the skill is acquired we must stop directing our conscious attention to the movement and let it happen "naturally", guided by the subconscious and unconscious (188) Practice is conscious while performance should not be (189)
Motions to be learned: free fall, five finger patterns, scales, arpeggios, rotation, staccato and thrust. Learn the technical formula and then apply it in appropriate repertoire. Mental practice: look at the passage, determine which motion should be applied, go through it mentally. [Only visual and sensory-motor, no mentioning the auditory]. Combine mental and physical practice. "It is most useful to be able to imagine the sound of music without the aid of an instrument" (191)
Perfect repetition is perfect memorization. Start memorizing once the interpretative and the motor ideas are clear
Performance: strategy: magnify the attention on breathing and on movements in the beginning to regain control and calm the heart beat (221) Strategy: direct the conscious attention to the aspects of playing that wouldn't interfere with the automatic motion, such as structure, dynamic.

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2018-09-01 в 13:32 

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Gieseking&Leimer
practice 5-6 times for about half an hour (p48), to be able to stay concentrated and to avoid an injury
the real improvement will begin after the piece is learned
Learn in short sections, first physical ease and then interpretation
not many etudes, but specifically tailored to the needs of the student and brought to perfection
use etudes for sight reading
scales cannot be avoided, although shouldn't take too much time. Must be practiced hands separate to be able to hear quality of sound produced by each finger. Practice with attention to volume, rhythmical value and sense of absolute relaxation of the muscles, very slowly for short time every day. Practice small parts (passing under, passing over and 5 consecutive fingers). Occasionally practice hands together to make sure both hands play perfectly in unison. Learn all the scales but their variations (sixths, thirds, contrary motion etc are unnecessary)

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2018-09-01 в 17:23 

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я хочу быть самой красивой в мире бабочкой
Chapters:
Lit review
On the nature of practice
- how the brain works
- goal setting
Structure (daily routine)
- immersion practice (Bauer)
List of strategies and their applications
On performance
- changes in the daily routines
- practice day before and day of
- performance itself and further work
Conclusion

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